Reliability Assessment of Battery-Assisted and Electrolyser-Battery Integrated PV Systems for Off-Grid Applications

John Kojo Annan, Francis Boafo Effah, John E Quaicoe


Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are usually the most obvious choice of renewable electrical energy installations for electrical energy supply. PV systems are generally categorized as grid-connected or standalone systems. In many applications, the most common type of storage used in solar PV systems is chemical storage, in the form of battery units. This paper considers the use of an electrolyser as an alternative storage system to convert excess PV electrical output into hydrogen gas for later utilization by Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). In this paper, PV system involving battery storage units are assessed along with PV system having electrolyser-battery integration in terms of their reliabilities. The assessment involves review of the schematics of the proposed PV configurations, the determination of component failure rates and the reliability modelling of the system. Reconfiguring the system into power delivery mode with power delivery routes and storage mode with storage routes, the reliabilities of the systems were obtained. Applying probabilistic approach, the reliability for the combined power delivery route was given as 0.853013 whereas the direct PV supply route, the battery supply route and the fuel cell supply route gave reliabilities of 0.802564, 0.81723 and 0.827821 respectively for one year of the system life. The combined system reliability of the storage mode gave a value of 0.997483 whereas the battery storage route and the electrolyser storage route gave reliability estimates of 0.948448 and 0.930736 respectively. Further system analysis showed that the electrolyser-battery integrated system is more reliable but had some setbacks which included the fact that the battery had to charge after which the electrolyser could work. Again, the PV output should be greater than the load demand to enable the electrolyser work effectively. The electrolyser-battery integrated system is more applicable for large PV output system feeding varying loads at different periods.


Reliability; Fuel Cell; Photovoltaic System; Fault Tree Analysis; Functional Block Diagram

Full Text:



Annan, J. K. (2017) “Reliability Assessment of PV/Biomass/Fuel Cell Hybrid Energy System”, Unpublished PhD Thesis Report, UMaT, Tarkwa, Ghana. 139 pp.

Anon. (2017a), “Photovoltaic System”, Accessed: July 15, 2012.

Anon. (2017b) “Fault Tree Analysis”, Accessed: June 20, 2017.

Anon (2017c) “Stand Alone Power System”, Accessed: November 4, 2017.

Anon (2017d) “Charge Controller”, Accessed: November 4, 2017.

Anon (2017e) “Reliability Engineering”,

engineering. Accessed: October 11, 2017.

Chan F. (2011) “Reliability Estimation of Three Single-Phase Topologies in Grid-Connected PV Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 58, Issue 7, pp 2683 – 2689

Ebeling, C. (1997), Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering, McGraw Hill Publication, Boston. 486 pp.

Giovanni Petrone et al., (2008) “Reliability Issues in Photovoltaic Power Processing Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 55, Issue 7, pp 2569 - 2580

Golnas A. (2012) “PV System Reliability: An Operator's Perspective”, Vol. 2, IEEE 38th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, USA.

Harb S. and Balog R. S. (2013) “Reliability of Candidate Photovoltaic Module-Integrated-Inverter (PV-MII) Topologies—A Usage Model Approach”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 28, Issue 6, pp. 3019 – 3027.

Jahn U. (2004) “Performance analysis and reliability of grid-connected PV systems in IEA countries”, IEEE Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Accessed: October 20, 2017

Srisaen N. (2006) “Effects of PV Grid-Connected System Location on a Distribution System”, IEEE Circuits and Systems, APCCAS. Accessed: July 12, 2016.

Wang C. and Nehrir M. H. (2008) “Power Management of a Stand-Alone Wind/Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell Energy System”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 23, Issue 3, pp. 957 - 967

Yilanciab A., Dincerb I. and Ozturka H. K. (2009) “A review on solar-hydrogen/fuel cell hybrid energy systems for stationary applications”, Vol. 35, Issue 3, pp 231 - 244


  • There are currently no refbacks.